The United States shared other countries` concerns about China`s intentions. The development of the economies of South and Central Asia is a long-standing goal of the United States, which intensified after the start of the U.S.-led war in Afghanistan and President Barack Obama`s pivot to Asia. The Obama administration has often spoken of the need for the Afghan economy to miss out on foreign aid, and in 2014, then-Deputy Foreign Minister William Burns called on the United States, Central and South Asia to “return to its historic role as a hub for world trade, ideas and culture.” In this sense, the Obama administration has supported a $10 billion pipeline through Turkmenistan, Afghanistan, Pakistan and India. It has also used billions of dollars for road and energy projects in Afghanistan and has used its diplomatic muscles to create new frameworks for regional cooperation to promote Central Asian economic relations. www.afr.com/world/asia/australia-s-china-belt-and-road-refusal-hurting-business-20190612-p51ww1 When we consider the global and regional acceptance of BIS, we must recognize that demand is necessary for what Beijing offers. www.news.com.au/finance/economy/australian-economy/inside-victorias-controversial-belt-and-road-initiative-deal-with-china/news-story/ff1aa7591be1931eda4f5155991ebe66 more generally, Chinese leaders are determined to restructure the economy to avoid the so-called middle income trap. In this scenario, which has affected nearly 90% of middle-income countries since 1960, wages and quality of life increase as low-skilled production increases, but countries struggle to move towards the production of higher quality goods and services. Some see it as a purely geopolitical game to break what Beijing sees as an American “encirclement” after the Obama administration`s “pivot to Asia.” Nor are they legally binding and can be terminated by mutual agreement. “Victoria needs to explain why it is the only state in the country that has made this agreement,” he said. Many of these documents have not been published, as have the financial details of many Chinese projects.