The issue has been negotiated by the Parties since 2009 and the successful agreement on the Kigali Amendment (decision XXVIII/1 and accompanying decision XXVIII/2) continues the historical legacy of the Montreal Protocol. The Kigali Amendment will enter into force on 1 January 2019 for countries that have ratified it. This year, under the Reagan administration, the United States joined the most effective global environmental agreement to date: the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer. It is the first global agreement with universal participation and has eliminated nearly 100% of the 10 ozone-depleting substances (AMPS) in the world. Recently, the political momentum to move discussions on HFCs from the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) to the Montreal Protocol has grown. Earlier this year, U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry and President Obama addressed the public on the issue. Recently, the G-20 summit in St. Petersburg supported the view that the Montreal Protocol should discuss hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), while accounting for and reporting on greenhouse gases should be carried out under the UNFCCC. The G-20 is an important decision, and the issue is expected to be the subject of lively discussions at the upcoming Montreal and climate negotiations in Bangkok and Warsaw, respectively. Depending on a decision, the UNFCCC may formally request the Montreal Protocol to raise the issue of HFCs, and the Montreal Protocol may form a contact group to discuss the phase-out schedule for HFCs. Discussions could go both ways.
Or it could be the status quo. The Multilateral Fund for the Implementation of the Montreal Protocol has disbursed approximately $2.9 billion from more than 6,800 projects since its inception to support developing countries` efforts to achieve their own goals of phasing out layers of layers of other layers. These projects have successfully eliminated more than 460,000 tonnes of CESO in developing countries. Given all these factors and more, the Montreal Protocol is considered one of the most successful environmental agreements of all time. What the Parties to the Protocol have accomplished since 1987 is unprecedented and continues to be an inspiring example of what international cooperation can accomplish at its best. The joint commitment of the Australian government and industry to protect the ozone layer has been critical to our success in meeting our protocol commitments. Australia and the ozone layer have also benefited from the commitment and expertise of many people from our scientific and technical organisations, industry and government. Indeed, in 2003, former UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan called the Montreal Protocol “the most successful international agreement to date.” Quite impressive from a man who has seen his fair share of international agreements.
The Multilateral Fund is another reason for the success of the Protocol. It provides additional funding to developing countries to help them achieve their compliance objectives. Significantly, it has also provided institutional support. This helps countries build capacity within their governments to carry out exit activities and build regional networks so they can share experiences and learn from one another. Fortunately for the ozone layer, the United States saw more reasons to deviate from the agreement than to ignore it. As the author of a working paper from the University of Chicago School of Law points out, not only were there low domestic costs to accompany Montreal (industry and the public were already on board), but there were also direct health reasons. The Environmental Protection Agency had predicted that if nothing was done about the hole in the ozone layer, Americans would suffer millions of deaths from skin cancer and millions more cases of cataracts over the next century. .