Unlike the open skies, some governments have imposed protectionist measures on their airlines. After World War II, many countries invested in the formation of national airlines (including flag airlines or former airlines), which were often a national pride. Many of them were all or partly owned by the state. As international competition increased and threatened to harm underperforming airlines, some governments put in place protectionist measures to protect their airlines. Norway and Iceland joined the agreement in 2011. Since 2002, 40 missions have been organised over the UK. There were 24 quota missions carried out by: Russia – 20; Ukraine – three; and Sweden – one. There were 16 training flights from: Benelux (jointly with Estonia); Estonia (in conjunction with the Benelux); Georgia – three (a commune with Sweden); Sweden – three (a commune with Georgia); United States – three; Latvia; Lithuania; Romania; Slovenia; Yugoslavia.  Also since 2002, the United Kingdom has carried out a total of 51 open-air missions – 38 quota missions in the following countries: Ukraine (five); Georgia (seven) and Russia (26); 13 missions were training missions in the following nations: Bulgaria; Yugoslavia; Estonia; Slovenia (three); Sweden (three); United States; Latvia, Lithuania and Benelux. Flights cost approximately $50,000 per mission and approximately $25,000 for training missions with approximately $175,000 per year.
 Open-ski agreements have significantly increased international passenger and cargo flights to and from the United States, encouraging more travel and trade, increasing productivity and stimulating opportunities for quality employment and economic growth. Open skies agreements do this by eliminating state intervention in airline business decisions about routes, capacity and prices, and by enabling airlines to provide consumers with more affordable, convenient and efficient services. The initial agreement was signed on April 30, 2007 in Washington, D.C. The agreement entered into force on March 30, 2008. The second phase was signed in June 2010 and has been applied on an interim basis until all signatories are ratified.  The “open skies” agreement between the EU and the United States is an open skies agreement between the European Union (EU) and the United States. The agreement allows any Airline of the European Union and any airline of the United States to fly between every point of the European Union and any point of the United States. EU and US airlines are allowed to travel to another country after their first stop (fifth freedom). Since the EU is not considered a single zone within the meaning of the agreement, this in practice means that US airlines can fly between two points in the EU as long as this flight is the continuation of a flight that started in the US (. B for example, New York – London – Berlin). EU airlines can also fly between the US and third countries that are part of the common European airspace, such as Switzerland.
EU and US airlines can fly all-cargo under the 7th Freedom Rights, which means that all-cargo flights by US airlines can be operated by an EU country to any other EU country and all-cargo flights can be operated by EU airlines between the US and any other country.  Norway and Iceland joined the agreement from 2011 and their airlines enjoy the same rights as THE EU airlines.  Open skies agreements are strategies to create an international market environment for the aviation industry. The aim is to use the policy to relax rules and regulations, and minimize state intervention in the transport of passengers, cargo and combined air, both as planned and chartered. Air services agreements can be bilateral (with two countries) or multilateral (with three or more countries).  Governments