In international law, a treaty is any legally binding agreement between states (countries). A treaty can be called a convention, protocol, pact, agreement, etc.c is the content of the agreement, not its name, that makes it a treaty. Thus, the Geneva Protocol and the Biological Weapons Convention are the two treaties, although no one has the word “treaty” in its name. Under U.S. law, a treaty is specifically a legally binding agreement between countries that requires ratification and “deliberation and approval” by the Senate. All other agreements (treaties in the international sense of the term) are called executive agreements, but are nevertheless legally binding under international law to the United States. In addition to treaties, there are other, less formal international agreements. These include efforts such as the Proliferation Security Initiative (PSI) and the G7 Global Partnership Against the Spread of Mass Destruction. Although the PSI has a “Declaration of Prohibition Principles” and the G7 Global Partnership, several G7 leaders` declarations, neither has a legally binding document, which sets out specific commitments and is signed or ratified by member states. International agreements are formal agreements or commitments between two or more countries. An agreement between two countries is called “bilateral”, while an agreement between several countries is “multilateral”. Countries bound by an international agreement are generally referred to as “States Parties”.
The IGV (2005) is an international agreement between 194 States Parties and the World Health Organization to monitor, report on and respond to events that may pose a threat to international public health. The objective of the IGV (2005) is to prevent, protect, control, control and respond to the spread of diseases at the international level in a manner that is appropriate and limited to risks to public health and avoids unnecessary interference in international transport and trade. (International Health Regulations, Article 2). For more information, see the RSI fact sheets. Unless a contract contains provisions concerning other agreements or acts, only the text of the treaty is legally binding. Generally speaking, a treaty amendment is binding only on States that have ratified the amendment and agreements reached at review conferences, summits or meetings of States parties are political, but not legally binding. The Charter of the United Nations is an example of a treaty that contains provisions relating to other binding agreements. By signing and ratifying the Charter, countries have agreed to be legally bound by resolutions adopted by UN bodies such as the General Assembly and the Security Council. Therefore, UN resolutions are legally binding on UN Member States and no signature or ratification is required. The BTWC prohibits the development, storage, acquisition, conservation and production of biological agents and toxins “of species and quantities that do not justify prophylactic, protective or other peaceful purposes” and of weapons, equipment and carrier vehicles “intended for the use of such products or toxins for hostile purposes or in armed conflict”. PSI is a comprehensive effort to end the trade in weapons of mass destruction, their means of delivery and related materials, as well as to States and non-State actors with proliferation problems. U.S.
participation in the PSI, launched on May 31, 2003, is the result of the U.S. National Strategy to Combat Weapons of Mass Destruction issued in December 2002. (DOS website) Please also visit the BWC and BWC Implementation Support Unit website. Since its establishment by the G8 Heads of State and Government at the G8 Summit in Kananaskis in June 2002, the Global Partnership has been committed to addressing non-proliferation, disarmament, counter-terrorism and nuclear security issues through cooperative projects in areas such as the destruction of chemical weapons; the dismantling of decommissioned nuclear submarines; the safety and disposal of fissile material; and the reintrouvation of the employment of former weapons researchers to peaceful civilian aspirations. . . .